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sbm which type of al is used in cement industryMortar 28.2.3 Types of mortar.Cement lime mortar may be made at ratios of 1:0.25:3 (cement:lime:sand) for higher strength and durability down to 1:3:12 for a weaker mix capable of accommodating more movement.Cement lime mortar should not normally be used below the damp proof course (dpc). Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC. 2014 6 11 · This Reference Document on best available techniques in the cement and lime industries.objectives of the document and its use.This BREF document has two parts,one for the cement industry and one for the lime industry,which each have 7 chapters according to the general outline.Consumption depends on the type of product,the purity of. Sustainable cement production—present and future. Sustainable cement production—present and future.Al: Al Input materials from the metal industry,such as: Residues from reprocessing salt slag.Ball mills have been used for over 100 years for milling processes in cement production.This mill type has prevailed because of its reliability and the favorable properties of the cement. Precast Concrete Manufacturing in the US Industry Data. Precast Concrete Manufacturing in the US industry outlook (2020 2025) poll Average industry growth 2020 2025: x.x lock Purchase this report or a membership to unlock the average company profit margin for this industry. The Global Cement Report Online Database of Cement Plants Welcome to The Global Cement Report™ online database of cement plants.This resource contains listings of over 2513 facilities worldwide (excluding China),and is the most up to date listing of cement plant information available.Basic data is available free of charge.For full access to the database,purchase The Global Cement Report. 26 Different Types of Concrete; [Its Classification,Uses. 2  · In concrete technology,a variety of type names has been used for different types of concrete.This classification is based on three factors: Type of material used in its making.Nature of stress conditions.Here in this article,well discuss the importance,ingredients,and types of concrete in details.Importance of Concrete. Coal & cement World Coal Association Coal & cement Varying the mix of cement,sand and aggregate enables concrete to be used in a range of applications.Products can be designed,coloured and shaped to accommodate a variety of environmental conditions,architectural requirements and to … Alternative Fuels in Cement Manufacturing IntechOpen Cement production is an energy intensive process consuming thermal energy of the order of 3.3 GJ tonne of clinker produced.Electrical energy consumption is about 90 120 kWh tonne of cement (Giddings,et al,2000; European Commission [EC] 2001).Historically,the primary fuel used in cement industry … Ternary blended cement Cement Science The binary cement,e.g.Portland cement blends with slag or fly ash or limestone,has gained great popularity in many countries.However,each kind of binary cement has its own shortfalls,e.g.the. Portland cement type 1 سیمان هرمزگان It can be used for normal constructions which have no limitation of environmental conditions (e.g.water,sand and …).But,because of high temperature of hydration,the usage of the cement type 1 42.5 is not suggested for warm area (e.g.Hormozgan Providence). Management of Environmental Quality: An International … 2016 3 8 · Paper type Literature review 1.Introduction Cement is the key construction material for global housing and infrastructure needs.(Laszlo et al.2006).The cement industry is an energy intensive industry with energy typically accounting for 30 40 per cent.This paper presents a review of the basic AF used in cement industry.2.AF in. Cement Manufacturing Enforcement Initiative US EPA The cement manufacturing industry was an EPA New Source Review Prevention of Significant Deterioration (NSR PSD) national enforcement initiative in fiscal years 2008 2010 and was continued as a Reducing Air Pollution from the Largest Sources national enforcement initiative for fiscal years 2011 2013.The cement sector is the third largest industrial source of pollution,emitting more than. Cement CEMEX Cement is a fine powder,obtained from the calcination at 1,450°C of a mix of limestone,clay,and iron ore.The product of the calcination process is clinker—the main ingredient of cement—that is finely ground with gypsum and other chemical additives to produce cement.Find out more about our main types of cement. Cement Plants located in Lebanon Cement Plant Location Information for Lebanon.Cement plant locations and information on Lebanon can be found below.For full access to the database,purchase The Global Cement Report™,13th Edition. The Differences Between Cement,Concrete,and Mortar The terms cement,concrete,and mortar can be confusing to DIYers,who may lump them all together as being messy substances used in masonry that harden to form a flat surface or to bind one object to another.The terms are often used interchangeably—and inaccurately.Though the terms are often used synonymously,cement,concrete,and mortar. Types of Cement in India The types of cement in India have increased over the years with the advancement in research,development,and technology.The Indian cement industry is witnessing a boom as a result of which the production of different kinds of cement in India has also increased. The Global Cement Report Welcome to The Global Cement Report™ online database of cement plants.This resource contains listings of over 2513 facilities worldwide (excluding China),and is the most up to date listing of cement plant information available. Types Of Crushers Used In Cement Industry Stone Crusher. Kind Of Crusher Used In Cement Plantexodus.Kind of crusher used in cement plant.Types of crushers used in cement industry mine equipments jaw crusher crushing production line is mainly used in the first crushing process can be used alone can also be crushed and other products supporting the use the series deep cavity jaw crusher ins. The growing cement industry of the UAE The plant benefits from an on site gas turbine power plant that is fuelled by natural gas.As for Pioneer Cement Industries,Ras al Khaimah Cement's dust emissions levels are reportedly 20mg m 3.Ras Al Khaimah Co For White Cement & Construction Materials (RAK White Cement) was founded in 1980 and has produced white cement since 1984.The group. The Global Cement Report Online Database of Cement Plants Welcome to The Global Cement Report™ online database of cement plants.This resource contains listings of over 2513 facilities worldwide (excluding China),and is the most uptodate listing of cement plant information available.Basic data is available free of charge.For full access to the database,purchase The Global Cement Report 20 Types of Mortar Used in Masonry Construction 2020 3 5 · 8.Aerated Cement Mortar.Basically,it is cement mortar to which air entraining agent is added to increase plasticity and workability.The resulted mortar is termed as aerated cement mortar.9.Mud mortar.In this type of mortar,mud is used as binding material and saw dust,rice husk or cow dung is used as fine aggregate. Masonry and Cement Products Buying Guide Material Characteristics Uses; Concrete Mix Preblended combination of cement,sand and gravel: Must be used in conjunction with rebar or wire remesh: Use of applications greater than 2 in thick Good choice for walks,steps and pads: Fast Setting Concrete A special blend of fast setting cement,sand and gravel: Sets hard in 20 to 40 minutes No mixing required when setting posts Pour dry mix. Cement Sustainability Initiative World Business Council. GNR is an independent database of CO 2 and energy performance information on the cement industry.Working with partners We partner with 15 cement trade associations worldwide to ensure our messaging is spread across a wider industry. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CEMENT PRODUCTION Key words: cement,cement industry,emissions.Introduction.Concrete is the most common construction material used in building industry.Cement is a basic component of concrete used for building and civil engineering construction.On average approximately 1 ton of concrete is produced each year for every human being in the world.Therefore Analysis of Chemical Composition of Portland Cement in. During cement hydration CaO in conjunction with SiO 2,Al 2 O 3,and Fe 2 O 3 leads to hardening of Portland cement due to the formation of calcium aluminosilicates and aluminoferrite hydrate.With Portland cement,an increased presence of MgO (greater than 2%) may be detrimental to the soundness of cement. cement Definition,Composition,Manufacture,History. Cement,in general,adhesive substances of all kinds,but,in a narrower sense,the binding materials used in building and civil engineering construction.Cements of this kind are finely ground powders that,when mixed with water,set to a hard mass.Setting and hardening result from hydration,which is a chemical combination of the cement compounds with water that yields submicroscopic. Coal & cement World Coal Association 1  · Coal & cement Varying the mix of cement,sand and aggregate enables concrete to be used in a range of applications.Products can be designed,coloured and shaped to accommodate a variety of environmental conditions,architectural requirements and to … Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC. The cement industry is an energy intensive industry with energy typically accounting for 30 40% of production costs (i.e.excluding capital costs).Various fuels can be used to provide the heat required for the process.In 1995 the most commonly used. Final project Report on cement industry The cement industry of Pakistan was once a very small industry but it rapidly grew with the passage of time and finally it entered in the export market.The cement industry contributes in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP),it creates employment opportunities for thousands of people and it creates huge revenue for the government in the form of taxes. Improvement of Logistics and Supply Chain Management … 1 · positive input when facing the problem arising in logistics and supply chain in such an organization.This research was conducted,in order to investigate,inquire,and to open up through the survey questionnaire; why other logistical systems have not been actively used in the cement industry … Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC. objectives of the document and its use.This BREF document has two parts,one for the cement industry and one for the lime industry,which each have 7 chapters according to the general outline.Cement industry Cement is a basic material for building and civil engineering construction.Output from the (PDF) Cement Manufacturing 3.2 Cement manufacturing process.used type of cement.current and potential future cement industry greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated under the new family of Intergovernmental Panel on. Cement Production Cement production is a thermal energy intensive process,which requires heating solid particles up to 1450°C and cooling it down.The process generates hot and CO2 rich exhaust streams.Fin order to study energy efficiency of the process,authors like Mujumdar et al.(2006,2007) developed detail models of process units,while others. Concrete Admixtures (Additives) Concrete admixtures (additives) enhances the properties of concrete for applications in construction with special requirements.Concrete additives are used to achieve desired workability in case of low water cement ratio,and to enhance setting time of concrete for long distance transportation of concrete. Calcium aluminate cements FONDAG cement is a mix of up to 40 percent alumina,stable at high temperatures and thermal cycling from 184 1,093 °C (300 2,000 °F) Composition.The main active constituent of calcium aluminate cements is monocalcium aluminate (CaAl 2 O 4,CaO · Al 2 O 3,or CA in the cement chemist notation). Cement Types,Composition,Uses and Advantages of We first discuss cement production and special nomenclature used by cement industrialists in expressing the composition of their cement products.We reveal different types of cement products,their compositions,properties,and typical uses.Wherever possible,we tend to give reasons as to why a particular cement type is more suitable for a given purpose than other types. Types Of Cement and Their Uses In Construction 4.White Cement: White cement is a type of ordinary Portland Cement which is pure white in color and has practically the same composition and same strength as OPC.To obtain the white color the iron oxide content is considerably reduced.The raw materials used in this cement are limestone and china clay. Cement Industry Overview The cement industry is the building block of the nation's construction industry.Few construction projects can take place without utilizing cement somewhere in the design.Annual cement industry shipments are currently estimated at $7.5 billion for 2012; up from $6.6 billion in 2011. Industrial Companies in Kuwait List of Top 10 Industry. The bulk of the non petrochemical industry is centered around cement and building material industries.Major challenges for the industry is accessibility to land,red tape,infrastrucuter bottlnecks,Top Industrial Companies in Kuwait Al. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving. 22 · U.S.cement industry in 20 are provided,followed by an assessment of various energy efficiency measures applicable to U.S.cement plants.2.The U.S.Cement Industry Cement is an inorganic,non metallic substance with hydraulic binding properties,and is used as a bonding agent in building materials. The Global Cement Report Welcome to The Global Cement Report™ online database of cement plants.This resource contains listings of over 2525 facilities worldwide (excluding China),and is the most up to date listing of cement plant information available.Basic data is available free of charge. Coal for cement: Present and future trends  · Assuming 5.7Bnt of cement production in 2050 and 350 400Mt of coal8 used to produce 4.2Bnt of cement in 2014,we arrive at coal consumption of 475 540Mt for the cement industry in 2050.However,this is not the end of the calculation. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CEMENT PRODUCTION Key words: cement,cement industry,emissions.Introduction.Concrete is the most common construction material used in building industry.Cement is a basic component of concrete used for. OMAN CEMENT COMPANY giving new strength to the construction industry.Since 1983,Oman Cement Company has symbolized Oman's drive for self reliance in core industries.We Have given new strength to the construction industry,consolidated the nation's efforts for infrastructure development and created resources to … Trends and developments in green cement and … The full range of alternative fuels used by the cement industry includes used tyres,sewage sludge,waste oil and waste derived fuels such as paper residue,plastics and textiles.Cement kilns are able to use whole or shredded tyres as a fuel,the biggest use for discarded tyres in Japan and the USA. Cement Types,Composition,Uses and Advantages of. We first discuss cement production and special nomenclature used by cement industrialists in expressing the composition of their cement products.We reveal different types of cement products,their compositions,properties,and typical uses.Wherever possible,we tend to give reasons as to why a particular cement type is more suitable for a given purpose than other types. 26 Different Types of Concrete [Its Classifiion,Uses 202058&ensp&#0183&enspIn concrete technology,a variety of typenames has been used for different types of concrete.This classifiion is based on three factors: Type of material used in its making.Nature of stress conditions.Here in this article,we'll discuss the importance,ingredients,and types of concrete in details.Importance of Concrete. What is the use of cement in construction industry cement is very useful in construction industry,as it is used.for structures,decoration and we all know that everyday,new.infrastructures are being built to improve our cities n country. Types of Cement and their Uses (12 Types) Civilology 2020 3 5 · Types of cement.Cement is a binding material used to bind different type of construction materials together.It is formed from argillaceous,siliceous,calcareous etc.By twisting this internal mix ratio and by altering the chemical inputs,special types of cement … Alternative Fuels in Cement Manufacturing IntechOpen The type of fuel used in cement production is subject to the constraints imposed by any deleterious effect on cement quality,refractory life and emissions released to the atmosphere.The benefits of using alternative fuels are highlighted,showing that good planning is needed before the alternative fuel to be used Drilling Waste Management and Cement Industry … 2020 3 1 · As these muds could be used as fuel resource and substitute other fossil fuels,it is preferred to process the muds and use them.Use of Drilling Wastes in Cement Industry.Thermal technologies use high temperatures to reclaim or destroy hydrocarbon contaminated material. USE OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY 2015 7 29 · Use of Alternative Fuels in Indian Cement Industry 349 TDF as alternative fuel.The expenses require for the different trials and tests are imposed on that individual plant.This is a costly affair and a stumbling block in use of alternative fuel in Indian cement plants.Combustion in Cement Kiln UAE 2020 3 2 · UAE: Figures from Irans Qeshm Free Trade Zone show a deficiency in domestic cement production in the UAE,as 48,000t of cement have been shipped to the country in the six months ending 21 September 2019.Cement from across the Gulf helps serve the consistently growing needs of the countrys construction industry. (PDF) Use of alternative fuels in cement industry Use of alternative fuels in cement industry.depending on the type of components and their organic contents.Alternate raw materials and fuel used in Cement Industry (Chatziaras et al.2014. Cement Manufacturing Enforcement Initiative US EPA The cement manufacturing industry was an EPA New Source Review Prevention of Significant Deterioration (NSR PSD) national enforcement initiative in fiscal years 2008 2010 and was continued as a Reducing Air Pollution from the Largest Sources national enforcement initiative for fiscal years 2011 2013.The cement sector is the third largest industrial source of pollution,emitting more than. Uses of Cement 2020 3 4 · Cement in this case is denoted as matrix while sand is termed as adulterant.We know Cement has good binding properties while there are other binding materials are also available,but cement is mostly used because of its high strength and water resisting properties.It is used to create a strong bond between bricks,stones in a masonry. 25 Examples of a Service Industry A service industry is any industry that produces value is that primarily intangible such as customer service,management,advice,knowledge,design,data and experiences.Advanced economies are experiencing a long term shift whereby service industries are becoming a larger component of economic output relative to other industries such as manufacturing and agriculture. How are the different types of cement used in construction. Different types of cement and their uses in construction work as follows: 1.Rapid hardening cement * When formwork is to be removed early for reuse.* when sufficient strength for further construction is wanted.* emergency repair work.* in co. Chemicl parameters defining clinker composition Cement A high silica ratio means that more calcium silicates are present in the clinker and less aluminate and ferrite.SR is typically between 2.0 and 3.0.Alumina Ratio (AR) The alumina ratio is defined as: AR= (Al. cement plant equipments manufacturer and suppliers … 2018 12 1 · Cement plant machinery equipments used in cement plants are compact,powerful and reasonably priced that meet all applications,to give trouble free and competent performance.Unit has all the skills to commence all aspects of cement plant construction.Ashoka cement plants India are environmental friendly. (PDF) Use of alternative fuels in cement industry the use of wastes as al ternative fuels by cement plants is b oth ecologically and economically justified.Keywords: alternative fuels,municipal and industrial waste,cement industry,cement. Cement Wikipedia ALABAMA CEMENT INDUSTRY Energy and Environment The U.S.cement industry has long been committed to minimizing emissions,waste,energy consumption,and the use of virgin raw materials.For example,the cement industry began to address climate change in the mid 1990s—one of the first industries to do so. Construction Products,Services & Building. CEMEX is among the leading cement companies for high quality bagged and branded cement products.More.Concrete Concrete is a versatile substance that has been used for centuries in a wide range of construction projects.Ready mix concrete suppliers help build home foundations,driveways,roadways,bridges,dams,buildings and more. Types Of Crushers Used In Cement Industry Stone Crusher. Kind Of Crusher Used In Cement Plantexodus.Kind of crusher used in cement plant.Types of crushers used in cement industry mine equipments jaw crusher crushing production line is mainly used in the first crushing process can be used alone can also be crushed and other products supporting the use. How aluminium is produced The production process for making alumina from nepheline also by produces soda,potash (a material used in construction,production of some chemicals,food industry etc.),and the rare metal gallium.The production waste,white mud,can be used to make high quality cement. Cement Kiln The cement kiln is a typical example of a sintering furnace.Kilns are used in the cement industry for calcining lime and are made in various forms.Rotary cement kilns as used in the cement industry take the form of a long cylinder supported on rollers.They vary … Different Types of cement Acid resistant cement is manufactured by mixing of acid resistant aggregates like quartz and sodium fluosilicate with normal cement.ARC cement is widely used in chemical industry.Coloured Cement.Coloured cement is manufactured by adding 5 to 15% of suitable pigment while grinding the cement.Example.Iron Oxide Red colour 26 Different Types of Concrete; [Its Classification,Uses. 1.Plain or Ordinary Concrete.It is one of the most commonly used types of concrete.In this type of concrete,the essential constituents are cement,sand and coarse aggregates designed,and mixed with a specified quantity of water.The ratio of essential constituents may be varied within wide limits. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Cement Industry and. 2012 4 11 · 2.1 Cement Industry and Cement Production Energy Fog et al.(1983)stated that the energy sources in a cement plant can be classified as primary sources,i.e.oil,coal,gas,other fuels and electricity,and secondary sources,i.e.waste heat from one phase of the process which can be recovered and utilized in another phase. AVAILABLE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR … 9 · Cement is a finely ground powder which,when mixed with water,forms a hardening paste of calcium silicate hydrates and calcium aluminate hydrates.Cement is used in mortar (to bind together bricks or stones) and concrete (bulk rock like building material made from cement… Types of Sand Used in Construction Sand provides bulk,strength,and other properties to construction materials like asphalt and concrete.It is also used as a decorative material in landscaping.Specific types of sand are used in the manufacture of glass and as a moulding material for metal casting.Other sand is used as an abrasive in sandblasting and to make sandpaper. Type S,N,and M Masonry Cement and Mortar Types of Masonry Cement & Mortar.CEMEXs Masonry Cements are produced in Type N Masonry Cement,Type S Masonry Cement and Type M Masonry Cement strength levels for use in preparation of ASTM Specification C 270 Type N,M or Type S Masonry Mortar,respectively without any further additions.Table 1 is a general guide for selection of mortar type. Cement Types What are the differences in these cement types and how are they tested,produced,and identified in practice? In the most general sense,portland cement is produced by heating sources of lime,iron,silica,and alumina to clinkering temperature (2,500 to 2,800 degrees Fahrenheit) in a rotating kiln,then grinding the clinker to a fine powder. CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY CEMENT BASED MATERIALS AND CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURE (CBM & CI).Ein Shams,and the more than year old Al Azhar University,which is also one of the world's major centers of Islamic learning.produced recently and has been used in place of Type V Cement (Sulphate Resistant Cement (SRC),or Sea Water,as. OMAN CEMENT COMPANY giving new strength to the construction industry.Since 1983,Oman Cement Company has symbolized Oman's drive for self reliance in core industries.We Have given new strength to the construction industry,consolidated the nation's efforts for infrastructure development and created resources to achieve self sufficiency. Cement Plants located in Lebanon The Global Cement Report Cement Plant Location Information for Lebanon.Cement plant locations and information on Lebanon can be found below.For full access to the database,purchase The Global Cement. cement plant equipments manufacturer and suppliers … 1 · Cement plant machinery equipments used in cement plants are compact,powerful and reasonably priced that meet all applications,to give trouble free and competent performance.Unit has all the skills to commence all aspects of cement plant construction.Ashoka cement plants India are environmental friendly. The Differences Between Cement,Concrete,and Mortar The terms cement,concrete,and mortar can be confusing to DIYers,who may lump them all together as being messy substances used in masonry that harden to form a flat surface or to bind one object to another.The terms are often used interchangeably—and inaccurately.Though the terms are often used synonymously,cement,concrete,and mortar are actually three distinctly different materials: CO2 Emissions Profile of the U.S.Cement Industry type of cement is determined based upon the type and quantity of additives added.Cooled clinker can be mixed with a small quantity of gypsum to produce Portland cement or can be mixed with a greater quantity of lime to produce masonry cement.ENERGY USE Total energy consumption in the U.S.cement industry. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC. The cement industry is an energy intensive industry with energy typically accounting for 30 40% of production costs (i.e.excluding capital costs).Various fuels can be used to provide the heat required for the process.In 1995 the most commonly used fuels were petcoke (39%) and Cement  · Types of Cement used in Construction Industry In addition to ordinary cement,the following are the other varieties of cement.Acid Resistance Cement: This is consists of acid resistance aggregates such as quartz,quartzites,etc,additive such as sodium fluro silicate (Na 2 SiO 6 ) and aqueous solution of sodium silicate. Oil Well Cement Additives: A Review of the Common Types Citation: Broni Bediako E,Joel OF,Ofori Sarpong G (2016) Oil Well Cement Additives: A Review of the Common Types.Oil Gas Res 2: 112.Oil Gas Res 2: 112.doi: 10.4172 ogr.1000112 Nanotechnology in the cement industry a patent analysis Nanotechnology can play a significant role in the construction industry and stands at eighth position in terms of most significant areas of appliions in nanotechnology.Nanoengineering of cementbased materials can result in outstanding or smart properties.Introduction of nanotechnology in cement industry has the potential to address some of the challenges such as CO2 emissions,poor crack Uses,Benefits,and Drawbacks of Fly Ash in Construction Fly ash can be a cost effective substitute for Portland cement in many markets.Fly ash is also recognized as an environmentally friendly material because it is a byproduct and has low embodied energy,the measure of how much energy is consumed in producing and shipping a building material.By contrast,Portland cement. cement Definition,Composition,Manufacture,History. Cement,in general,adhesive substances of all kinds,but,in a narrower sense,the binding materials used in building and civil engineering construction.Cements of this kind are finely ground powders that,when mixed with water,set to a hard mass.Setting and hardening result from hydration,which is a chemical combination of the cement compounds with water that yields submicroscopic. Majan Cement We deal with Cement and Clinker of various grade.This type of cement (Ordinary Portland Cement) is used for public purposes without the specific characteristics of concrete and in all reinforced and non reinforced concrete structures that are required to initial and more final resistance. Oil and Gas Well Cementing US EPA 201351&ensp&#0183&enspvolumes,cement material properties MATERIAL PROPERTIES: Cement,relationships between pipecementformation PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES CYCLING Over the life of the well GEOMECHANICS: Insitu stresses,change in stresses along borehole,change in stresses in cement and pipe GEOLOGY GEOCHEMISTRY: Formation type,structure, The growing cement industry of the UAE 2020 3 4 · cement plants have 29Mt yr of cement production capacity,while the cement grinding plants have 10.44Mt yr of capacity,giving a total of 39.84Mt yr.Almost half,13.3Mt yr or 45.9%,of the UAE's integrated cement production capacity is located in Ras al Khaimah. Cement Definition of Cement at Dictionary.com Cement definition,any of various calcined mixtures of clay and limestone,usually mixed with water and sand,gravel,etc.to form concrete,that are used as a building material.See more. IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN WITHIN THE CEMENT … 2019 3 20 · The cement industry is ideal example of the continuous industry sector and it will be used to demonstrate that the lean philosophy is applicable to all deferent organisation types.There are numerous challenges facing the cement industry in todays competitive environments; one of the major challenges is the capability of the cement