Blockchain Layer of the DIVA Universe. PBFT consensus.
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DIVA Blockchain

A blockchain implementation using Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) in combination with Proof-of-Stake (PoS) as a consensus algorithm. It is therefore a "Weighted Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance" consensus.

This is a fully anonymous ("Privacy-By-Design"), very lightweight, fast, low-energy and permissionless blockchain.

The load of the PBFT consensus is very much network bound. The chain gets built by "communication" instead of "computation". Therefore lots of messages are crossing the network.

The peers in the network communicate via websockets. The peers build the tunnels between each other using a secure and efficient "Challenge/Auth" process based on regular asymmetric keys (public/private keys). "Sodium" gets used as the single crypto library - so all crypto-related code is based on solid, very well tested and proven code.

Architecture / Flow

The network itself is permission- and leaderless. Each peer in the network represents a round-based state machine. Each round produces a block. The blocks do have a variable size and blocks are produced on demand.

  1. New proposal: each peer in the network may anytime propose a transaction, by sending it to the network.
  2. Locking: each peer receiving such a new proposal may send a lock to the network. Such a lock represents an agreement of a peer with a specific proposal. If a peer also has an own transaction, it adds his own transaction to the new proposal first and sends the new proposal to the network. Per round, each peer can only add one own transaction to a proposal.
  3. Multiple rounds of locking might be necessary to reach consensus (2/3 of the network) on a lock and its related proposal. A peer might send multiple locks to the network.
  4. Creation of a new block to be voted for: as soon as consensus is reached on a lock, peers will create a new block based on the lock and vote for the new block.
  5. Voting: each peer receiving a vote, checks it for validity and - if the peer agrees - votes for the block too.
  6. Commit: as soon as a peer in the network detects that consensus has been reached (2/3 of the network have voted for a specific block), it writes the block to the chain and sends a synchronization message to the network.

Create Your Local Environment

To create a docker based local environment use the project


The configuration can be controlled using environment variables.


Set to 1 to skip bootstrapping. Default: 0


URL to a entrypoint in the network, like http://diva.i2p. Default: (empty)


Default: block




Default: 17468


Default: 17469


Default: (empty)


Default: 0


Default: 0


Default: 1000

Maximum number of blocks kept in memory.


Default: 7

Between 7 and 64 peers.


Default: 120000ms

Between 2 minutes and 10 minutes (120'000ms and 600'000ms).


Default: 5000ms

Interval, in milliseconds, to refresh the network (connect to peers, if needed).



Timeout, in milliseconds, after authorisation fails.


Default: 5000ms

Interval, in milliseconds, to ping the peers in the network.



Interval, in milliseconds, to clean up the network environment (like gossiping data).


Default: 2

Number of pings from a stale peer until synchronization gets triggered.


Default: 50 Maximum number of blocks of synchronization message might contain. Must not exceed API_MAX_QUERY_SIZE.


Default: 0

Whether to log all network traffic (very verbose). Set to 1 to enable verbose logging.


Default: 1000


Default: 500

API Endpoints

Quering the Blockchain

GET /about

Returns an object containing the version, the license and the public key of the peer.

GET /peers

GET /network

GET /state/{key?}[?filter=some-valid-regex]

Get all or a specific state from the local state database. The local state database is a key/values storage and represents a well-defined set of current states.

Example: http://url-divachain-api/state/?filter=^DivaExchange: will return those states where the key starts with "DivaExchange:".

GET /stack/transactions

Get the stack (queue) of local transactions.

GET /pool/transactions

Get the current transactions in the pool (to be written to the next possible block).

GET /pool/locks

Get the current locks on the transaction pool.

GET /pool/votes

Get the current votes on the transaction pool.

GET /pool/block

Get the block which might be committed, if the consensus gets reached.

GET /block/genesis

Get the genesis block.

GET /block/latest

Get the latest block on the chain.

GET /block/{height}

Get a specific block on the given height.

Example: http://url-divachain-api/block/10 will return the block on height 10.

Error handling: If a block is not yet available, 404 (Not Found) will be returned.

GET /blocks/{from?}/{to?}/[?filter=some-valid-regex]

Get all blocks between height "from" (inclusive) and height "to" (inclusive). If "to" is not yet available, the blocks until the current height will be returned.

The optional query parameter filter is also supported. Supply some valid regex to filter the blocks.

Example: http://url-divachain-api/blocks/10/19/ will return 10 blocks (block 10 until 19, if all blocks are already).

Example: http://url-divachain-api/blocks will return the latest API_MAX_QUERY_SIZE blocks (at most).

Example: http://url-divachain-api/blocks/10/19/?filter=abc will return those blocks within the range of block 10 until 19, which do contain the string "abc".

Error handling: 404 (Not Found) will be returned.

Remark: Not more than API_MAX_QUERY_SIZE can be requested at once.

GET /blocks/page/{page}/{size?}

Get a specific page of the blockchain, starting at the current height (reverse order). If size is not given, it will return API_MAX_QUERY_SIZE blocks or less.

Example: http://url-divachain-api/blocks/page/1/5 will return the last 5 or less blocks of the chain.

GET /transaction/{origin}/{ident}

Get a well-defined transaction.

Error handling: 404 (Not Found) will be returned if the transaction is not available.

Transmitting Transactions

PUT /transaction/{ident?}

Submit a new transaction proposal to the network.

Joining and Leaving the Network

This is an automated process. Neither developers nor users need to access these API endpoints.

GET /join/{address}/{publicKey}

Request to join the network. A new address and a new public key wants to join the network.

Send this GET request to any remote peer in the network which is online. This remote peer will later - in some seconds or even minutes - send back an independent GET request to the local /challenge/ endpoint.

GET /leave/{address}


GET /challenge/{token}

Response will contain the signed token. Verify the response with the public key of the remote peer.

Network Synchronization

This is an automated process. Neither developers nor users need to access these API endpoints.

GET /sync/{height}

Get a well-defined number of blocks starting from {height} (including). See NETWORK_SYNC_SIZE.

How to Run Unit Tests

Unit tests can be executed using:

npm run test

Unit tests contain functional tests and will create some blocks within the local storage. The underlying network (like I2P) must be configured properly (the configuration is Work-In-Progress).

To lint the code, use

npm run lint

Contact the Developers

On DIVA.EXCHANGE you'll find various options to get in touch with the team.

Talk to us via Telegram (English or German).


Your donation goes entirely to the project. Your donation makes the development of DIVA.EXCHANGE faster.

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Awesome, thank you!